Introduction
Problems in competitive programming which involve Mathematics are are usually about number theory, or geometry. If you know number theory, that increases your ammo heavily in solving a lot of tougher problems, and helps you in getting a strong hold on a lot of other problems, too.

Problems in competitive programming require insight, so just knowing some topics is not enough at all. All of the problems requires more or less math tough. For instance, solving large systems of equations and approximating solutions to differential equations.
Set Theory
Before we proceed, let us get through the some common set operations.

Q.) What is a Set?

-In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.

For example, the numbers 2, 4, and 6 are distinct objects when considered separately, but when they are considered collectively they form a single set of size three, written {2,4,6}.

Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathema…

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